Women’s Rights National Park, Seneca Falls, NY: Site of the First Wave

After taking a hiatus following the end of the spring semester, I thought I would dive back in by posting some pictures from a stop I made on my drive back from New Hampshire this month: Women’s Rights National Park in Seneca Falls, New York.

The park encompasses several sites, including the historic Wesleyan Methodist Church where first wave “feminists” Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott held the first Women’s Rights Convention in 1848, Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Seneca Falls home, and the home of the McClintocks, the Quaker husband and wife team who hosted Stanton and Mott and whose home also served as a stop on the Underground Railroad, assisting escaped slaves. In addition, the Visitor’s Center offers wonderful displays documenting the history of the Women’s Rights movement in the U.S.

Wesleyan Methodist Church, site of the first Women's Rights Convention held July 18-20, 1848.

Wesleyan Methodist Church, site of the first Women’s Rights Convention held July 19-20, 1848.

A fountain-wall situated between the Women's Rights NAtional Park Visitor's Center and the historic Wesleyan Methodist Church features the entirety of the Declaration of Sentiments, the document read aloud at the convention, which was based on the American Declaration of Independence.

A fountain-wall situated between the Women’s Rights NAtional Park Visitor’s Center and the historic Wesleyan Methodist Church features the entirety of the Declaration of Sentiments, the document read aloud at the convention, which was based on the American Declaration of Independence.

 

Both our tour guide, who gave wonderfully detailed and provocative talks, and the Visitor’s Center itself approached this history from an appropriately feminist angle, reflecting on issues of race/ethnicity – for example, in addressing the overlap and some of the tensions between the abolitionist and early women’s rights movements – class, and also religion (e.g., the Quaker community’s support of human rights, which encompassed abolition as well as women’s rights).

Bronze statues representing the First Wave of women's rights activists (including both women and men) in the lobby of the Visitor's Center. The artist, Lloyd Lillie and two assistants sculpted the statues out of clay, which were then cast in bronze.

Bronze statues representing the First Wave of women’s rights activists (including both women and men) in the lobby of the Visitor’s Center. The artist, Lloyd Lillie and two assistants sculpted the statues out of clay, which were then cast in bronze.

Another cluster, featuring former slave and human rights activist Frederick Douglass (center), and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (left), one of the organizers of the 1848 convention.

Another cluster, featuring former slave and human rights activist Frederick Douglass (center), and Elizabeth Cady Stanton (left), one of the organizers of the 1848 convention.

View through the front door of Elizabeth Cady Stanton's Seneca Falls home, and the stairs where Amelia Bloomer demonstrated her bloomers, illustrating for Stanton how she could easily ascend the stairs with both a baby and a lantern in her arms without fear of tripping on her skirts. Bloomer also published a paper titled The Lilly, which Stanton write for under the pen name Sunflower.

View through the front door of Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Seneca Falls home, and the stairs where Amelia Bloomer demonstrated her bloomers, illustrating for Stanton how she could easily ascend the stairs with both a baby and a lantern in her arms without fear of tripping on her skirts. Bloomer also published a paper titled The Lilly, which Stanton write for under the pen name Sunflower.

A statue of Sojourner Truth, whose famous speech "Aint I a Woman" highlights how race affects how we recognize womanhood and femininity (to read her speech, check out the link under Readings to the right).

A statue of Sojourner Truth, whose famous speech “Aint I a Woman” highlights how race affects how we recognize womanhood and femininity (to read her speech, check out the link under Readings to the right).

 

In addition to the Women’s Rights National Park, the Seneca Falls Visitor’s Center, located just a couple of blocks from the Wesleyan Church, has displays exploring the role of women in the many industries of Seneca Falls, including the long-standing Seneca Knitting Mills, which building can be seen from the rear windows of the Visitor’s Center

 

Becoming a Global Citizen: Applied Feminist Ethics

The following excerpts come from the documentary Examined Life (2008), in which the filmmaker Astra Taylor interviews eight influential contemporary philosophers in their own environments to discuss the practical application of their ideas in our modern world. In the interviews below, both Peter Singer and Kwame Appiah discuss ethics in our increasingly global world:

PETER SINGER

 

KWAME APPIAH

More on the Paycheck Fairness Act

Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Md) addressing the Senate:

 

Garment Workers Overseas: Unpacking the Feminist Politics of Clothing

Over the last year, U.S. companies, including brands like Gap, Joe Fresh (JCPenney), H&M, and Faded Glory (sold at Wal-Mart) have come under increasing pressure to increase the safety standards for the workers in their garment factories overseas. Recent disasters, including the factory fire in Bangladesh (on India’s eastern border), in November 2012 that killed 112 and the collapse of another building that houses five garment factories near Dhaka (in Bangladesh) in May of 2013, which killed 1,127 workers have brought worker safety to the forefront of global conversation.

Why would these disasters be of especial importance to feminists? For one, the majority of the workers are women.

Here is some context for our reading of Cynthia Enloe’s “Blue Jeans and Bankers” from her book Bananas, Beaches, and Bases.

The collapse of the factory earlier this year is one of the worst industrial disasters in history–and some U.S. corporations,  most notably Wal-Mart, still refuse to sign off on the safety regulations for overseas factories that Europeans have already agreed to.

A garment factory in Rhana Plaza, Dhaka collapsed in May 2013. Over 1,000 workers were killed, and it has been called one of the worst industrial disasters in history.

A garment factory in Rhana Plaza, Dhaka collapsed in May 2013. Over 1,000 workers were killed, and it has been called one of the worst industrial disasters in history.

 

These recent disasters have fueled ongoing labor protests and other areas as workers demand safer working conditions and better pay.

Bangladeshi garment workers demand better wages and safety regulations after the industrial disasters of the last year that have left thousands of workers dead.

Bangladeshi garment workers demand better wages and safety regulations after the industrial disasters of the last year that have left thousands of workers dead.

 

If companies like Wal-Mart have gotten themselves in trouble for exploiting their workers abroad, they’ve also come under fire at home, as American workers have participated in ongoing strikes and boycotts for a livable wage and benefits. (FYI: Wal-Mart remains staunchly anti-union.) In fact, despite mounting evidence of Wal-Mart’s numerous abuses (labor, environmental, etc.), celebrities like Tom Cruise have praised the company for improving women’s lives all over the world (Democracy Now, “Striking Workers, Bangladeshi Activist Challenge Wal-Mart”).

This haunting photograph was taken in the aftermath of the garment factory collapse in Dhaka, India, earlier this year.

This haunting photograph was taken in the aftermath of the garment factory collapse in Dhaka, India, earlier this year.

LEARN MORE…

Watch the full story of the Bangladesh garment factory disasters on Democracy Now, including a report from global labor activist Kalpona Akter of the Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity and Scott Nova of WorkersRights.org.

Read an interview with a garment industry labor activist involved in the protests, who spoke to Purdue’s own Tithi Battacharya.

Homework Due Tuesday, April 15th

In preparation for next week’s discussion about low-wage labor and international politics (Enloe), visit the following site and answer the questions to see how many slaves work for you around the world.

Slavery Footprint

Write up a paragraph reflecting on your number and tying your experience of going through the questions to Enloe’s reading. You’ll receive homework points for turning it in.

Adair and Hays: Welfare Reform, Work Ethic, and the Working Class

Toward the end of our last presidential election in 2012, Mother Jones journalists released the following footage of Mitt Romney meeting behind closed doors with some of his inside supporters. Listen especially to his characterization of President Obama’s supporters and how he uses the accusation of “entitlement.”

 

FYI: he’s not just talking about those on welfare and programs like SNAP here. He’s also talking about anyone who gets (“feels entitled to”) money from the government, including, for example, those of us using students loans. At the core of Romney’s speech is the beloved “boostraps” rhetoric – the idea that if an individual can just work hard and “pull himself up by his bootstraps,” he will be able to “make it” (and that success is so often defined in a narrow, profit-driven way, that is, as the accumulation of private wealth and material goods).

What stereotypes of poor and/or working class Americans does Romney invoke in his speech? How do such stereotypes connect to public arguments about welfare reform?

THE WELFARE QUEEN IN THE AMERICAN IMAGINATION

Let’s think more specifically about how the stereotype of the welfare queen is often used to justify cuts to welfare programs.

 

A political cartoon of the stereotypical image of the welfare queen living off the government, linked also with Democrats, who have historically been defenders of welfare programs.

A political cartoon of the stereotypical image of the welfare queen living off the government, linked also with Democrats, who have historically been defenders of welfare programs.

 

On November 1, 2013, welfare recipients saw dramatic cuts amounting to a total of $40 billion to their SNAP (or food stamp) allowances. Recently, Congresswoman Speier (D-CA) gave this speech in an attempt to put such cuts in perspective, especially in an age of “austerity panic”:

 

Do you think you could take the SNAP challenge and eat on just $4.50 a day?

Want to now more about common myths the media uses to undercut welfare and perpetuate those stereotypes of the poor that Adair talks about? Read “What the Right Doesn’t Want You to Know about Welfare: 9 Myths Exposed.”

 

Education Theft and the Policing Image of the Welfare Queen

In 2011, Kelly Williams-Bolar, a young, Black mother of two daughters living in Akron, OH, was jailed and convicted of a felony for sending her daughters to a well-to-do private school in her father’s better neighborhood. The court’s decision ultimately jeopardized her job as a teacher’s aid and her future career as an educator. Watch ABC’s news coverage of the story:

However, this isn’t an isolated incident; it may be the beginning of a new trend. Last year, another woman, Tanya McDowell of Bridgeport, CT, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for “education theft.”

The Feminist Wire asks: “…when does American Dream seeking, innovation, motherly ‘instinct,’ and creative problem solving get celebrated and when does it get criminalized? Which mother’s children deserve the best, and which mothers are demonized for asserting their children’s worth?”

To begin to answer this question, we first need to determine what these two women have in common. Let’s go back to Adair:

“…systems of power produce and patrol poverty through the reproduction of both social and bodily markers” (233).

In other words, Adair, like the French Philosopher Michel Foucault whom she cites, understands that the body of a citizen becomes “written on,” or like a text that we all read meanings onto; and some bodies, like those of the poor and of minorites become texts we read, in particular, as warning signs. This, Foucault asserts, is how such systems of power discipline the rest of us to behave or think in certain ways. Consider, in particular, the image of the welfare queen (see Adair, p. 234 and p.240).

Here’s Adair analyzing how our culture “reads” the body of the welfare queen:

The welfare queen’s body is portrayed as “the embodiment of dependency, disorder, disarray, and otherness. Her broken and scarred body becomes proof of her inner pathology and chaos, suggesting the need for further punishment and discipline. In contemporary narratives welfare women are imagined to be dangerous because they refuse to sacrifice their desires and fail to participate in legally sanctioned heterosexual relationships; theirs is read, as a result, as a selfish, ‘unnatural,’ and immature sexuality” (240).